The interplay of electrode- and bio-materials in a redox-cycling-based clozapine sensor.

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TitleThe interplay of electrode- and bio-materials in a redox-cycling-based clozapine sensor.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsWinkler, TE, Dietrich, R, Kim, E, Ben-Yoav, H, Kelly, DL, Payne, GF, Ghodssi, R
JournalElectrochem commun
Date Published2017 Jun

We investigate gold, TiN, and platinum in combination with a chitosan-catechol-based redox-cycling system (RCS) for electrochemical detection of the antipsychotic clozapine. We have previously demonstrated the RCS for detection of clozapine in serum, but challenges remain regarding low signal-to-noise ratios. This can be mitigated by selection of electrode materials with beneficial surface morphologies and/or compositions. We employ cyclic voltammetry to assess the redox current generated by clozapine, and differentiate solely surface-area-based effects from clozapine-specific ones using a standard redox couple. We find that nano- and microstructured platinum greatly amplifies the clozapine signal compared to gold (up to 1490-fold for platinum black). However, the material performs poorly in the presence of chloride ions, and RCS modification provides no further amplification. The RCS combined with atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) TiN, on the other hand, increases the signal by 7.54 times, versus 2.86 times for RCS on gold, with a 9.2-fold lower variability, indicating that the homogenous and chemically inert properties of ALD-TiN may make it an ideal electrode material.

Alternate JournalElectrochem commun
PubMed ID28729810
PubMed Central IDPMC5512729
Grant ListR56 MH105571 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States