Contributions of the histidine side chain and the N-terminal alpha-amino group to the binding thermodynamics of oligopeptides to nucleic acids as a function of pH.

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TitleContributions of the histidine side chain and the N-terminal alpha-amino group to the binding thermodynamics of oligopeptides to nucleic acids as a function of pH.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsBallin, JD, Prevas, JP, Ross, CR, Toth, EA, Wilson, GM, M Record, T
JournalBiochemistry
Volume49
Issue9
Pagination2018-30
Date Published2010 Mar 9
ISSN1520-4995
KeywordsAmino Acid Sequence, Animals, DNA-Binding Proteins, Histidine, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Models, Chemical, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, Oligopeptides, Peptide Fragments, Poly U, Protein Binding, Protons, RNA, RNA-Binding Proteins, Thermodynamics
Abstract

Interactions of histidine with nucleic acid phosphates and histidine pK(a) shifts make important contributions to many protein-nucleic acid binding processes. To characterize these phenomena in simplified systems, we quantified binding of a histidine-containing model peptide HWKK ((+)NH(3)-His-Trp-Lys-Lys-NH(2)) and its lysine analogue KWKK ((+)NH(3)-Lys-Trp-Lys-Lys-NH(2)) to a single-stranded RNA model, polyuridylate (polyU), by changes in tryptophan fluorescence as a function of salt concentration and pH. For both HWKK and KWKK, equilibrium binding constants, K(obs), and magnitudes of log-log salt derivatives, SK(obs) identical with (partial differential logK(obs)/partial differential log[Na(+)]), decreased with increasing pH in the manner expected for a titration curve model in which deprotonation of the histidine and alpha-amino groups weakens binding and reduces its salt-dependence. Fully protonated HWKK and KWKK exhibit the same K(obs) and SK(obs) within uncertainty, and these SK(obs) values are consistent with limiting-law polyelectrolyte theory for +4 cationic oligopeptides binding to single-stranded nucleic acids. The pH-dependence of HWKK binding to polyU provides no evidence for pK(a) shifts nor any requirement for histidine protonation, in stark contrast to the thermodynamics of coupled protonation often seen for these cationic residues in the context of native protein structure where histidine protonation satisfies specific interactions (e.g., salt-bridge formation) within highly complementary binding interfaces. The absence of pK(a) shifts in our studies indicates that additional Coulombic interactions across the nonspecific-binding interface between RNA and protonated histidine or the alpha-amino group are not sufficient to promote proton uptake for these oligopeptides. We present our findings in the context of hydration models for specific vs nonspecific nucleic acid binding.

DOI10.1021/bi902027z
Alternate JournalBiochemistry
PubMed ID20108951
PubMed Central IDPMC2864607
Grant ListR01 CA102428 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 CA102428-06A1 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States