Biological Functionalization of Drug Delivery Carriers To Bypass Size Restrictions of Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Independently from Receptor Targeting.

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TitleBiological Functionalization of Drug Delivery Carriers To Bypass Size Restrictions of Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Independently from Receptor Targeting.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsAnsar, M, Serrano, D, Papademetriou, I, Bhowmick, TKumar, Muro, S
JournalACS Nano
Date Published2013 Nov 20
ISSN1936-086X
Abstract<p>Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and microcarriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and microcarriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems.</p>
DOI10.1021/nn404719c
Alternate JournalACS Nano
PubMed ID24237309