A Glutamate-Dependent Redox System in Blood Cells Is Integral for Phagocytosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

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TitleA Glutamate-Dependent Redox System in Blood Cells Is Integral for Phagocytosis in Drosophila melanogaster.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsGonzalez, EA, Garg, A, Tang, J, Nazario-Toole, AE, Wu, L-Q
JournalCurr Biol
Volume23
Issue22
Pagination2319-24
Date Published2013 Nov 18
ISSN1879-0445
Abstract<p>Glutamate transport is highly regulated as glutamate directly acts as a neurotransmitter [1-3] and indirectly regulates the synthesis of antioxidants [4, 5]. Although glutamate deregulation has been repeatedly linked to serious human diseases such as HIV infection and Alzheimer's [6-8], glutamate's role in the immune system is still poorly understood. We find that a putative glutamate transporter in Drosophila melanogaster, polyphemus (polyph), plays an integral part in the fly's immune response. Flies with a disrupted polyph gene exhibit decreased phagocytosis of microbial-derived bioparticles. When infected with S. aureus, polyph flies show an increase in both susceptibility and bacterial growth. Additionally, the expression of two known glutamate transporters, genderblind and excitatory amino acid transporter 1, in blood cells affects the flies' ability to phagocytose and survive after an infection. Consistent with previous data showing a regulatory role for glutamate transport in the synthesis of the major antioxidant glutathione, polyph flies produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to wild-type flies when exposed to S. aureus. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a polyph-dependent redox system in blood cells is necessary to maintain the cells' immune-related functions. Furthermore, our model provides insight into how deregulation of glutamate transport may play a role in disease.</p>
DOI10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.061
Alternate JournalCurr. Biol.
PubMed ID24210616