|Title||Biofabrication with chitosan.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2005|
|Authors||Yi, H, Wu, L-Q, Bentley, WE, Ghodssi, R, Rubloff, GW, Culver, JN, Payne, GF|
|Date Published||2005 Nov-Dec|
|Keywords||Animals, Biocompatible Materials, Biomimetics, Biosensing Techniques, Catalysis, Chitosan, Computational Biology, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Hydrolysis, Manufactured Materials, Models, Biological, Models, Chemical, Nanotechnology, Nucleic Acid Hybridization, Nucleic Acids, Time Factors|
The traditional motivation for integrating biological components into microfabricated devices has been to create biosensors that meld the molecular recognition capabilities of biology with the signal processing capabilities of electronic devices. However, a different motivation is emerging; biological components are being explored to radically change how fabrication is achieved at the micro- and nanoscales. Here we review biofabrication, the use of biological materials for fabrication, and focus on three specific biofabrication approaches: directed assembly, where localized external stimuli are employed to guide assembly; enzymatic assembly, where selective biocatalysts are enlisted to build macromolecular structure; and self-assembly, where information internal to the biological material guides its own assembly. Also reviewed are recent results with the aminopolysaccharide chitosan, a material that offers a combination of properties uniquely suited for biofabrication. In particular, chitosan can be directed to assemble in response to locally applied electrical signals, and the chitosan backbone provides sites that can be employed for the assembly of proteins, nucleic acids, and virus particles.