|Title||Reversible vesicle restraint in response to spatiotemporally controlled electrical signals: a bridge between electrical and chemical signaling modes.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Zhu, C, Wu, L-Q, Wang, X, Lee, J-H, English, DS, Ghodssi, R, Raghavan, SR, Payne, GF|
|Date Published||2007 Jan 2|
|Keywords||Animals, Chitosan, Liposomes, Microelectrodes, Models, Neurological, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology, Signal Transduction|
Microelectronic devices employ electrons for signaling whereas the nervous system signals using ions and chemicals. Bridging these signaling differences would benefit applications that range from biosensing to neuroprosthetics. Here, we report the use of localized electrical signals to perform an operation common to chemical signaling in the nervous system. Specifically, we employ electrical signals to restrain vesicles reversibly. We perform this operation using the stimuli-responsive aminopolysaccharide chitosan that is able to electrodeposit onto cathode surfaces in response to localized electrical stimuli. We show that surfactant-vesicles and liposomes can be co-deposited with chitosan and are entrapped (i.e., restrained) within the deposited film's matrix. Vesicle co-deposition could be controlled spatially and temporally using microfabricated wafers with independent electrode addresses. Finally, we show that vesicles restrained within the deposited chitosan matrix can be mobilized under mildly acidic conditions (pH <6.5) that resolubilize chitosan. Potentially, the ability to restrain and mobilize chemical signals that are segregated within vesicles may allow microfluidic systems to access the rich diversity offered by chemical signaling.