Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in free and prodomain-complexed subtilisin.

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TitleHydrogen-deuterium exchange in free and prodomain-complexed subtilisin.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsSari, N, Ruan, B, Fisher, KE, Alexander, PA, Orban, J, Bryan, PN
JournalBiochemistry
Volume46
Issue3
Pagination652-8
Date Published2007 Jan 23
ISSN0006-2960
KeywordsAmides, Deuterium Exchange Measurement, Enzyme Stability, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular, Protein Denaturation, Protein Folding, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Subtilisin, Thermodynamics
Abstract

Residue-specific exchange rates of 223 amide protons in free and prodomain-complexed subtilisin were determined in order to understand how the prodomain binding affects the energetics of subtilisin folding. In free subtilisin, amide protons can be categorized according to exchange rate: 74 fast exchangers (rates > or = 1 h(-1)); 52 medium exchangers (rates between 1 h(-1) and 1 day(-1)); 31 slow exchangers (rates between 1 day(-1) and 0.001 day(-1)). The remaining 66 amide proteins did not exchange detectibly over 9 months (k(obs) < year(-1)) and were denoted as core protons. Core residues occur throughout the main structural elements of subtilisin. Prodomain binding results in high protection factors (100-1000) in the central beta-sheet, particularly in the vicinity of beta-strands S5, S6, and S7 and the connecting loops between them. These connecting loops provide the ligands to the cation at metal site B. Overall, prodomain binding seems to facilitate the organization of the entire central beta-sheet and alpha-helix C in the left-handed crossover connection between beta-strands two and three. It also appears to facilitate the isomerization of multiple prolines late in folding, allowing the formation of metal site B. The gain of stability region around site B comes at the cost of stability in regions more distal to prodomain binding: the C-terminal alpha-helix H and the N-terminal alpha-helices A and B. The acceleration of exchange in these regions by prodomain binding reveals an antagonism between the folding intermediate and the full native structure. This antagonism helps to explain why the prodomain is needed to stabilize the folding intermediate as well as why the unfolding of free subtilisin seldom occurs via this intermediate.

DOI10.1021/bi061601r
Alternate JournalBiochemistry
PubMed ID17223687
Grant ListGM42560 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States