|Title||Biofabrication methods for the patterned assembly and synthesis of viral nanotemplates.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2010|
|Authors||Gerasopoulos, K, McCarthy, M, Banerjee, P, Fan, X, Culver, JN, Ghodssi, R|
|Date Published||2010 Feb 5|
|Keywords||Acetone, Aluminum, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, Nanostructures, Nanotechnology, Nickel, Oxygen, Tobacco Mosaic Virus|
This paper reports on novel methodologies for the patterning and templated synthesis of virus-structured nanomaterials in two- and three-dimensional microfabricated architectures using the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The TMV is a high aspect ratio biological molecule which can be engineered to include amino acids with enhanced binding properties. These modifications facilitate self-assembly of the TMV onto various substrates and enable its use as a template for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. This work focuses on the combination of this bottom-up biologically inspired fabrication method with standard top-down micromachining processes that allow direct integration of the virus-structured materials into batch-fabricated devices. Photolithographic patterning of uncoated as well as nickel-coated TMV nanostructures has been achieved using a lift-off process in both solvent and mild basic solutions and their assembly onto three-dimensional polymer and silicon microstructures is demonstrated. In addition to these patterning techniques, in situ formation of metal oxide TMV coatings in patterned microfabricated environments is shown using atomic layer deposition directly on the nickel-coated viruses. The biofabrication 'process toolbox' presented in this work offers a simple and versatile alternative for the hierarchical patterning and incorporation of biotemplated nanomaterials into micro/nanofabrication schemes.