|Title||Biofabrication to build the biology-device interface.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2010|
|Authors||Liu, Y, Kim, E, Ghodssi, R, Rubloff, GW, Culver, JN, Bentley, WE, Payne, GF|
|Date Published||2010 Jun|
|Keywords||Biocompatible Materials, Bioengineering, Biotechnology, Electronics, Medical, Humans, Molecular Biology|
The last century witnessed spectacular advances in both microelectronics and biotechnology yet there was little synergy between the two. A challenge to their integration is that biological and electronic systems are constructed using divergent fabrication paradigms. Biology fabricates bottom-up with labile components, while microelectronic devices are fabricated top-down using methods that are 'bio-incompatible'. Biofabrication--the use of biological materials and mechanisms for construction--offers the opportunity to span these fabrication paradigms by providing convergent approaches for building the bio-device interface. Integral to biofabrication are stimuli-responsive materials (e.g. film-forming polysaccharides) that allow directed assembly under near physiological conditions in response to device-imposed signals. Biomolecular engineering, through recombinant technology, allows biological components to be endowed with information for assembly (e.g. encoded in a protein's amino acid sequence). Finally, self-assembly and enzymatic assembly provide the mechanisms for construction over a hierarchy of length scales. Here, we review recent advances in the use of biofabrication to build the bio-device interface. We anticipate that the biofabrication toolbox will expand over the next decade as more researchers enlist the unique construction capabilities of biology. Further, we look forward to observing the application of this toolbox to create devices that can better diagnose disease, detect pathogens and discover drugs. Finally, we expect that biofabrication will enable the effective interfacing of biology with electronics to create implantable devices for personalized and regenerative medicine.