Phylogenetic and functional characterization of the hAT transposon superfamily.

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TitlePhylogenetic and functional characterization of the hAT transposon superfamily.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsArensburger, P, Hice, RH, Zhou, L, Smith, RC, Tom, AC, Wright, JA, Knapp, J, O'Brochta, DA, Craig, NL, Atkinson, PW
JournalGenetics
Volume188
Issue1
Pagination45-57
Date Published2011 May
ISSN1943-2631
KeywordsAedes, Animals, Base Sequence, Beetles, Conserved Sequence, DNA Footprinting, DNA Transposable Elements, Gene Duplication, Mammals, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Transposases
Abstract

Transposons are found in virtually all organisms and play fundamental roles in genome evolution. They can also acquire new functions in the host organism and some have been developed as incisive genetic tools for transformation and mutagenesis. The hAT transposon superfamily contains members from the plant and animal kingdoms, some of which are active when introduced into new host organisms. We have identified two new active hAT transposons, AeBuster1, from the mosquito Aedes aegypti and TcBuster from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Activity of both transposons is illustrated by excision and transposition assays performed in Drosophila melanogaster and Ae. aegypti and by in vitro strand transfer assays. These two active insect transposons are more closely related to the Buster sequences identified in humans than they are to the previously identified active hAT transposons, Ac, Tam3, Tol2, hobo, and Hermes. We therefore reexamined the structural and functional relationships of hAT and hAT-like transposase sequences extracted from genome databases and found that the hAT superfamily is divided into at least two families. This division is supported by a difference in target-site selections generated by active transposons of each family. We name these families the Ac and Buster families after the first identified transposon or transposon-like sequence in each. We find that the recently discovered SPIN transposons of mammals are located within the family of Buster elements.

DOI10.1534/genetics.111.126813
Alternate JournalGenetics
PubMed ID21368277
PubMed Central IDPMC3120152
Grant ListAI45741 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
GM48102 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
/ / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / United States