|Title||Viral Hacks of the Plant Vasculature: The Role of Phloem Alterations in Systemic Virus Infection.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Kappagantu, M, Collum, TD, Dardick, C, Culver, JN|
|Journal||Annu Rev Virol|
|Date Published||2020 May 26|
For plant viruses, the ability to load into the vascular phloem and spread systemically within a host is an essential step in establishing a successful infection. However, access to the vascular phloem is highly regulated, representing a significant obstacle to virus loading, movement, and subsequent unloading into distal uninfected tissues. Recent studies indicate that during virus infection, phloem tissues are a source of significant transcriptional and translational alterations, with the number of virus-induced differentially expressed genes being four- to sixfold greater in phloem tissues than in surrounding nonphloem tissues. In addition, viruses target phloem-specific components as a means to promote their own systemic movement and disrupt host defense processes. Combined, these studies provide evidence that the vascular phloem plays a significant role in the mediation and control of host responses during infection and as such is a site of considerable modulation by the infecting virus. This review outlines the phloem responses and directed reprograming mechanisms that viruses employ to promote their movement through the vasculature. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 7 is September 29, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
|Alternate Journal||Annu Rev Virol|